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The zero-emissions grid would mainly rely on wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, with support from pumped hydro storage, and would eliminate Australia’s need for coal and gas-fired power.
Lead researcher Prof Andrew Blakers says the short-term off-river pumped hydro energy storage (STORES) sites combined have a potential storage capacity of 67,000 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) – much more than the capacity required for a zero-emissions grid.
“Australia needs only a tiny fraction of these sites for pumped hydro storage – about 450 GWh of storage – to support a 100 per cent renewable electricity system,” he says.
“Fast tracking the development of a few of the best sites by 2022 could balance the grid when Liddell and other coal power stations close.
“Pumped hydro storage, including Snowy 2.0, can be developed fast enough to balance the grid with any quantity of variable wind and solar PV power generation, including 100 per cent renewable energy.
“We found so many good potential sites that only the best 0.1 per cent will be needed. We can afford to be choosy.”
STORES sites require pairs of reservoirs at different altitudes, typically ranging from 10 hectares to 100 hectares, in hilly terrain and joined by a pipe with a pump and turbine. Water is pumped uphill when wind and solar energy is plentiful, and electricity is available on demand by releasing the stored water through a turbine.
Co-researcher Dr Matthew Stocks says off-river pumped hydro storage typically delivers maximum power for five to 25 hours, depending on the size of the reservoirs.
“Like all hydro power, it can go from zero to full power in about one minute,” he says.
“Annual water requirements would be much less than half that of the current fossil fuel system because wind and PV do not require cooling water.”
Co-researcher Mr Bin Lu says all of the potential STORES sites are outside national parks and urban areas, and each site has a storage potential range of 1–300 GWh.Maps showing the locations of potential STORE sites and a report on the findings are available at re100.eng.anu.edu.au/
The Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) provided $449,000 to support the ANU-led study.